Expert Details

Expert in Electrochemical Processing

Expert ID: 108454 Missouri, USA

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Expert is an internationally recognized expert in the area of organic electrochemistry. He has spent more than 20 years in the Electrochemistry Group at Monsanto actively engaged in discovery and development of electrochemical processes for many electroorganic synthesis reactions (electrochemical oxidations and reductions) including processes for pharmaceutical intermediates, monomers, cross-linkers, and agricultural chemicals. In addition, he elucidated the mechanisms of many of these types of reactions using electrochemical analysis techniques such as polarography, cyclic voltammetry, coulometric analysis, and potentiometric analysis. Much of this work was performed as nonaqueous electrochemistry.

Expert directed much of his efforts toward the discovery of the lowest cost electrochemical system, which often meant finding ways to operate an electrolysis using water as the solvent for the electrolytic solution, finding low cost anodes, cathodes, and other electrochemical process materials and using undivided cells. His developments included low cost electrosynthesis routes to Naproxen, Ibuprofen, Butane Tetracarboxylic Acid and Glyphosate.

Expert is the leading expert in electropurification of gallium for production of high purity gallium metal. In the method he discovered and developed, the electrochemical cell contains two gallium electrodes. During the electrolysis, gallium metal is dissolved by electrochemical oxidation from the low purity anode, transported through the electrolytic solution as gallate ion, and then deposited at the cathode in an electroplating process (or electrowinning process) as high purity molten gallium. That method produced some of the world's highest purity gallium metal which resulted in gallium arsenide electronic devices with exceptional properties.

A significant portion of Expert's activity has involved the discovery and development of several electrochemical sensors and indicators including a solid state iridium oxide pH sensor and a solid state silver-silver chloride reference electrode. These solid state electrodes are protected from redox agents in solution by a very thin coating of ionic membrane. The applications include chemical process pH control, food processing pH control, environmental monitoring and pH measurement, and laboratory pH monitoring and measurement. A combination electronic pH and chlorine indicator was developed for determining the acidity (or alkalinity) and chlorine concentration in swimming pools, process streams, and other applications. In addition, he has a broad understanding of the sensor and indicator business areas owing to his work to expand his former company's effort in this area by acquisition.

Expert has broad expertise in the areas of displays. Recent work has focused on low cost flexible printable electrochromic and thermochromic displays. An application area explored in depth was that of retail, active, point-of-purchase displays. Thus, electrical circuits were printed using silver ink or electroless plating processes. For thermochromic displays, a resistive pattern was printed followed by various layers of thermochromic and normal inks. Thermochromic ink typically is produced by organic thermochromic material microencapsulation. For an electrochromic device, the circuit was overprinted with layers of electrochromic material and electrolyte. The electrochromism is provided by a variety of materials including metal oxides, conducting polymers (polypyrrole and polyaniline), metal complexes, and organic molecules. Various printing techniques were employed including flexographic, gravure, and silk-screen.

Expert is an expert in a wide range of electrochemical waste treatment processes including electrowinning (removal) of metals from plating or electroless plating processes (plastic plating process) waste streams, electrodialysis or salt splitting to recover acids and/or bases from salt streams using electromembrane processes, desalination using electrochemical transport of ions across membranes, and direct electrochemical destruction of organic wastes and pollutants. His experience with ionic membranes is a common thread throughout his work in electrosynthesis, electrochemical sensors, as well as electrochemical waste treatment.


Year Degree Subject Institution
Year: 1964 Degree: PhD Subject: Organic Chemistry Institution: University of Iowa
Year: 1960 Degree: AB Subject: Chemistry Institution: Monmouth College (Illinois)

Work History

Years Employer Title Department
Years: 1993 to Present Employer: Undisclosed Title: Consultant Department:
Years Employer Title Department
Years: 1985 to 1993 Employer: Monsanto Chemical Co Title: Fellow, Manager Department:
Years Employer Title Department
Years: 1964 to 1985 Employer: Monsanto Central Research Title: Senior Research Chemist Department:

International Experience

Years Country / Region Summary
Years: to Present Country / Region: Summary: Expert was involved with a joint research program with a Canadian firm. He has lectured at universities and businesses in Sweden, Germany, Italy, Northern Ireland, and England.

Career Accomplishments

Associations / Societies
Expert is a member of the American Chemical Society, the Electrochemical Society, and the International Society of Electrochemistry.
Publications and Patents Summary
He has more than 75 publications, 20 patents, and has presented many invited lectures in the US and Europe.

Language Skills

Language Proficiency
German Read with difficulty
French Read with difficuty

Fields of Expertise

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