Expert Details

Expert in Industrial Engineering Productivity Services for Manufacturing or Distribution Centers

Expert ID: 730458 Pennsylvania, USA

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Assembly manufacturers or distribution centers have three main types of labor standards: Output Estimates that a department foreman generally establishes. Historical output that are records of past accomplishment. And Industrial Engineered Standards that are developed by trained and experienced technicians or engineers. The primary advantage of estimates and historical output is there is no cost involved in the process of development but the main disadvantage is they are not accurate and almost always are 15% below that of the industrial engineered standard.


The following steps provide valuable information that can be used to improve any repeatable assembly operation or a distribution center work tasks such as order picking:

Define Objective. What is your primary goal? Is it cost reduction, accurate labor reporting, operator performance records, product labor pricing or line (time) balancing of work? Determining your objective will assist in developing a time frame to accomplish your goal.

Work Method Optimization. Reduce to writing the detail of each alternative method. Use power tools or fixtures where applicable. Maximize hand and eye coordination and reach ergonomics. Take a cycle time of each alternative method before developing a detailed time study to ascertain which method takes the least overall time. This generally will give you an idea of where to concentrate your efforts.

Detailed Work Measurement: The development of a labor cost expectation or industrial engineered standard and method includes:

• Listing of work elements for each operation.

• Scrutiny of work elements for optimum methodology.

• Plotting of time values for each work element through direct observation - take 10 minimum cycle times of each work element for each assembly operation or distribution center work task.

• Average the cycle times or select a representative time that best suits your operator rating. Rate the performance level of each work element for the operator observed…have you completed a certified class of operator speed leveling that compares your rating with the average of thousands of industrial engineers?

• Totaling of leveled work element time values for each operation.

• Factoring of unavoidable delay, personal and fatigue allowances for the respective department of your facility.

• Calculations of operational standards - covert the factored total to your standard into the following pieces per hour, pieces per day, hours per hundred etc.

Test Results. Compare the results of your new industrial engineered standard with that of what existed before especially if there is a monetary incentive involved. Have your accounting and payroll departments run a parallel system - new versus old. Make sure your objective has been achieved before implementing the standard.

Implement the standards. Only after performing the above test. Years ago with the suspicion of union stewards, new industrial engineered standards had to be quoted immediately after the time study observation and before the time study technician left the floor. That not the case here. Do it right and test the results before quoting the standard.

Maintain the standards. A slight change in the time-studied method can result in a corresponding minor addition or deletion to the developed standard time. But if left alone over years, those slight changes add up to a major change where the entire job has to be completely re-methodized and retime studied. So it’s to your advantage to keep on top of your department’s industrial engineered standards by keeping them current.

New Accurate Reports.

Provided the industrial engineering design of a variable gain sharing incentive plan affecting ninety-four direct and indirect plant wide hourly factory workers in a coiled steel processing facility. Development of primary measurement alternatives. Development of weighted comparison criteria. Assist in selection of primary measurement alternative. Assist in scope of primary measurement alternative. Assist in frequency of primary measurement alternative. Development of secondary measurement alternatives. Assist in selection of secondary measurement alternatives. Assist in scope and frequency assignment of secondary measurement alternatives. Assist in assignment of primary and secondary relative weight to one another. Development of performance pay charts using Excel spread sheets based on historical indices. Written variable gain sharing incentive plan procedure. Liaison with payroll and data processing personnel. Assist with implementation of variable gain sharing incentive plan. Performed return-on-investment analysis for six divisions of major HVAC Corporation
to determine consolidation feasibility. Industrial Engineering activity included time study, conceptual layout, conceptual equipment specification and costing, cost versus savings and report. Detailed implementation activity including snap back time study, line balancing, workstation / departmental Word drawing layouts and precision indexing rotary table equipment specification for two of the above six divisions. Direct labor savings of 50%.
Assist in the transformation of a progressive gravity roller assembly conveyor for commercial air conditioner products to a paced assembly system utilizing two (approximately) fifty feet long by three feet wide indexing linear slider bed conveyors with preset dwell time PLC control panels, pause buttons and traverse warning lights. Industrial Engineering activity included on-site time study of eight families (different build sequences) on six fan sizes; equipment specifications, forty-eight optimum and sixteen alternative line balances; work station layout, part bills of material, parts containerization, visual aids, task instructions and tooling; on-site crew training and system implementation. Direct labor savings of 30%.Industrial Engineered Standards in receiving – inspect and verification, automatic storage and retrieval system – pre pallet storage, automatic storage and retrieval system – pre stock pallet storage, stock pick location with pallet, pick and pack frozen food package on shipping pallet, shrink wrap pallet, shipping – load truck.Work flow analysis in high and low volume pick areas, Optimum method development for manual pick from flow rack and for fork truck pick from pallet rack, Materials Handling on live storage and retrieval carousel specifications, Robotic specifications for carousel tote removal, Manual and automated layout alternatives, Cost justification for automated storage and retrieval system.


Year Degree Subject Institution
Year: 1962 Degree: BS Subject: Operations Management Institution: Rider University

Work History

Years Employer Title Department
Years: 1977 to 2012 Employer: JD Gray Associates Title: Contract Industrial Engineer Department:
Manufacturing or Distribution Center Contract Industrial Engineering Consultant specializing in parts materials handling mechanization, direct labor control systems and product automation work cells. 200 productivity systems installed in warehouse, fabrication, assembly and work-in-process for 50 plus corporations in 30 years. • Product knowledge in sheet metal, plastic, wood, aluminum, thermo-electric, electrical, mechanical and electro-mechanical • Installed 100 production lines for over 1000 finished goods unique line balances • Business acumen in marketing, industrial engineering and operations management.

Fields of Expertise

activity analysis, assembly engineering, assembly line, assembly sequence planning, automation engineering, automation system, continuous flow manufacturing, conveying system, cost control, cost engineering, designing productivity, engineering economics, flexible manufacturing system, incentive compensation plan, industrial automation, industrial control, industrial design, industrial engineering, industrial engineering setup time, industrial engineering setup time reduction, industrial systems engineering, integrated performance support system, intelligent business system, inventory control system, just-in-time inventory, knowledge worker productivity, line balancing, man-machine system, management system, manufacturing, manufacturing automation, manufacturing cell, manufacturing cell design, manufacturing efficiency, manufacturing facility, manufacturing productivity, manufacturing resource planning, manufacturing technology, manufacturing technology management, measurement standard, measurement system, measurement-unit system, mechanical system, methodology, motivation, operations, performance improvement, performance management, performance measurement, processing system, product handling system, production line, production process, productivity, productivity improvement, productivity measurement, productivity measurement (quantity), time measurement standard, time-and-motion study, work measurement (quantity), work team, work-flow layout, workforce management system, scheduling, robotics

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