Expert Details

Expert in Infrared and Other Electro-optic Detector Technologies

Expert ID: 107836 Arizona, USA

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Expert has designed and modeled the performance of complete thermal imaging systems, remote temperature monitoring systems, infrared absorption systems, remote temperature monitoring systems, and other types of sensing systems. He has modeled the performance of each component of these systems and combined all of the components to generate a detailed performance model of the complete system.

He has worked in the electro-optics field since 1979. He has developed electron-bombarded silicon CCD imagers for very faint visible light. The substantial portion of expert's effort has been directed toward the development of infrared detectors and hybrid focal plane arrays and infrared imaging systems. He has studied device physics such as the interaction of electromagnetic radiation with the electrons in the detector and the effects of material defects such as dislocations and surface passivation. He has substantial wafer processing experience. He has designed infrared detectors and arrays and has helped others design the silicon readout integrated circuits (or multiplexers) to which infrared detector arrays are hybridized. He has developed interconnect processes for hybridizing infrared focal plane array procedures, including indium bump bonding and wire bonding techniques. He has designed, built, and used extensive test and characterization facilities for detectors and imaging arrays. In addition to CCDs, expert has worked with long wave, medium wave, and short wave infrared (LWIR, MWIR, and SWIR) HgCdTe, InSb, PbSe, and PbS detectors and arrays and the uncooled silicon microbolometer.

He has designed complete sensors to detect infrared radiation. This has included the detector, packaging including the Dewar and cooling system, optics, and electronics. He has also set up test facilities to calibrate the sensor. For the past 20 years, he has worked on developing infrared detectors and detection systems sensitive to 3-5 and 8-12 micrometer radiation. He has developed HgCdTe, InSb, and PbSe detectors. He has designed thermal imaging systems using large arrays of these detectors as well as microbolometers. He has also designed numerous detection systems using single-element detectors and small arrays using these detectors and several others. Expert designed a sensor that detects a hydrocarbon flame by sensing both the infrared and ultraviolet signatures of the flame over narrow spectral regions. By simultaneously detecting both IR and UV, he found that the false alarm rate to be greatly reduced.

Expert has developed complete imaging systems, including the focal plane array, Dewar, cooling system, optics, electronics, and the system interfaces. He has designed drive electronics that operate FPAs and analog and digital signal processing electronics that extract the images from the background. He has worked extensively with cryogenically-cooled systems using Stirling cycle engines and Joule-Thompson cryostats as well as thermoelectrically cooled (Peltier) and uncooled systems. Expert has set up test facilities to fully characterize infrared imaging systems and has also set up computer models that accurately predict the performance of complete imaging systems. He designed several infrared thermometers designed to remotely measure the surface temperature of objects. The application of these devices include a temperature "gun" used to measure the surfaces of industrial facilities and a controller for an induction furnace.

He has been an expert witness in legal proceedings concerning use of thermal or infrared imaging devices.

Over the course of his career, he led teams that developed both low-cost and high-performance infrared line scanners. Examples are a low-cost line scanner that used a thermoelectrically cooled linear PbSe FPA and operated in the MWIR band and a SWIR/MWIR multispectral high-performance line scanner that used two dimensional InSb arrays operated in the time-delay-and integrate mode and was designed for very low light levels.

He has written a set of computer programs that calculate the electromagnetic radiation emitted by a source and the radiation incident on a detector. The amount of energy and the number of photons in any spectral band can be calculated. These calculations are used extensively in designing infrared sensors and imaging systems.

Having used InSb photodiodes for detection of mid-wave infrared (MWIR) radiation for many years, expert has designed MWIR imaging systems using very large InSb arrays that detect very low radiation levels with background limited performance.

Expert has designed several infrared cameras sing InSb and HgCdTe photodiodes and PbS photoconductive detectors. The InSb and PbS cameras detected radiation in the mid-wave infrared (MWIR) 3-5 micrometer wavelength radiation region. The HgCdTe cameras detected radiation in the long wave infrared (LWIR) 8-12 micrometer wavelength region. The systems were staring and scanning. The HgCdTe and InSb scanning systems also had time-delayed-and-integrate (TDI).

In an area of secondary expertise, he designed, fabricated, and characterized charge-coupled devices (CCDs) during the development of virtual phase (uniphase) CCD at Texas Instruments. He developed a frontside-illuminated, electron-bombarded CCD that detected individual photons with a signal-to-noise ratio of 10.

He transferred manufacturing of a laser modulator from development to production. He developed computerized assembly techniques for a laser modulator that significantly reduced cost and increased reliability.

Expert has designed gas detection sensors using the absorption of infrared radiation. These sensors determine the concentration of a specific gas by measuring the amount of radiation absorbed at specific wavelengths; those wavelengths corresponding to electronic transitions in the molecules being detected. He has used several types of detectors for these sensors, depending on the cost and performance requirements.

Designed and built prototypes of remote temperature sensor that accurately measured temperature of object in an induction furnace and provided control signal to the furnace power system to maintain the temperature of the object at a stable, defined temperature,Designed absorption sensor that determined fractions of crude oil and water ("the cut") being pumped through a pipe line from the oil well.Designed and built prototypes of an after market optical sensor that detected vehicles in the driver's blind spots on both sides of an automobile or truck. Provided technical support to a major manufacturer of medical equipment in the development of a SiC photodiode imaging array hybridized to a Si readout chip (multiplexer or ROIC) that detected very low levels of X-ray radiation thereby providing a very high resolution image and exposing the patient to much lower levels of radiation experienced with standard X-ray machines using film. X-ray machines today almost exclusively use this type of solid state imaging array in lieu of film.Provided technical support to a major manufacturer of high voltage power line transformers that spectroscopically monitored the level of contaminants in the transformer cooling oil determining when the transformer had to be taken off line in order to change the oil.

Expert may consult nationally and internationally, and is also local to the following cities: Phoenix, Arizona - Tucson, Arizona - Mesa, Arizona - Glendale, Arizona - Scottsdale, Arizona - Chandler, Arizona - Tempe, Arizona - Gilbert, Arizona - Peoria, Arizona

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Year Degree Subject Institution
Year: 1968 Degree: PhD Subject: Physics Institution: Case Western Reserve University
Year: 1962 Degree: BS Subject: Physics Institution: Case Institute of Technology

Work History

Years Employer Title Department Responsibilities
Years: 1996 to Present Employer: Undisclosed Title: Principal/Owner Department: Responsibilities: Expert supports companies in design and use of infrared and other electro-optic sensors to meet specific requirements of commercial and industrial applications. He also acts as expert witness in legal proceedings
Years: 1992 to 1996 Employer: Litton Electro-optical Systems Title: Business Development Manager Department: Responsibilities: Expert undertook the development of future infrared technologies and products.
Years: 1990 to 1991 Employer: Magnavox New England Research Center Title: Chief Scientist and FPA Product Manager Department: Responsibilities: Expert was tasked with the development of infrared technologies and second-generation FPA product line.
Years: 1983 to 1990 Employer: McDonnell Douglas Microelectronics Center and Elect Title: Branch Manager Department: Responsibilities: Expert was responsible for the direction of infrared detector design group, multiplexer integrated circuit design group, FPA packaging group, test and evaluation group; development of high performance, second-generation LWIR FPA; and the transition to production modulator for satellite laser communication system.
Years: 1979 to 1983 Employer: Technical Staff, Texas Instruments Central Research Laborat Title: Member of Technical Staff Department: Responsibilities: Expert undertook the development of electron-bombarded CCD and the development of second-generation LWIR FPA.
Years: 1972 to 1979 Employer: University of Kentucky Title: Assistant Professor of Physics Department: Responsibilities: Expert was responsible for teaching and research.
Years: 1970 to 1972 Employer: Louisiana State University Title: Administrative Assistant, Dept. of Physics and Astronomy Department: Responsibilities: Expert operated the Department's administrative functions. His primary responsibility was maintaining budgets.
Years: 1968 to 1970 Employer: Louisiana State University Title: Post Doctoral Research Associate, Department of Physics and Astronomy Department: Responsibilities: Expert conducted research on properties of electrons in metals.

International Experience

Years Country / Region Summary
Years: 1983 to Present Country / Region: England, Scotland, Germany, France, Italy, and Israel. Summary: Expert has extensive experience conducting business in the UK (England and Scotland), Germany, France, Italy, and Israel.

Career Accomplishments

Associations / Societies
Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers (IEEE), American Physical Society (APS), Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE)
Professional Appointments
Post Doctoral Research Associate, Louisiana State University; Assistant Professor of Physics, University of Kentucky
Executive Board of Phoenix Chapter IEEE-LEOS, President and member of Executive Board of IEEE Phoenix Area Consultants Network, Executive Board of IEEE Phoenix Section
Awards / Recognition
University Fellow, Case Western Reserve University; NASA Fellow; Research Corporation Fellow
Publications and Patents Summary
Expert has published more than 20 papers in major international journals. Since 1979, nearly all of his publications have been in the classified literature.

Additional Experience

Expert Witness Experience
Expert has provided written and oral deposition and court testimony concerning use of infrared thermal imaging cameras and the significance of the observation under varying circumstance. He has also provided more informal technical consultation on other legal issues.
Training / Seminars
He has had extensive off-site training in program management in addition to management of many large programs. He has studied the literature on a regular basis to keep abreast of advancement in electro-optic technology. He has provided hands-on training to many of his team members over the years.
Vendor Selection
He had substantial experience locating and identifying vendors/suppliers for all types of infrared and other electro-optic detectors, optical components, electronics, electronic components, cryogenic cooling components and systems, vacuum systems.
Marketing Experience
Marketing and product development has been major job function since 1983.
Other Relevant Experience
From 1996 to present, Expert has owned and operated an independent consulting and product development company concerned primarily with development of infrared detection systems. He was also a partner and co-owner of a company which was concerned with imaging of very low visible light, i.e., star light. He has provided technical support to a number of clients in developing instruments for remote (non-contact) temperature measurement including an entire product line of instruments to measure at distance the temperature of a small area or point to calibrated thermal imagers that accurately simultaneously measure the temperatures over a significant area.

Fields of Expertise

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