Expert Details

Expert in Mathematics, Navigation System Design & Data Analysis, Airspace Collision Risk & Safety Analysis

Expert ID: 729473 United Kingdom

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Expert has been working through the period of development of satellite based navigation systems. He has been intimately involved in the development of techniques to improve accuracy, reliability, and availability of such systems including the development of a Mathematical Model of a Differential Global Navigation Satellite System, a study of Civil GPS Accuracy and Availability around Sweden, effects of Jamming, and techniques for Real-Time Multisite Differential GPS.

He has also investigated the propagation characteristics of other Radio Navigation systems including Very Low Frequency (VLF) radiowave propagation around the globe, including determination of error characteristics of the system under varying ionospheric and environmental conditions, and the use of Terrain Databases to accurately predict visibility of DME equipments.

Expert has carried out investigations in the Underwater environment including work on Seismic Streamer Positioning and Quality Control Techniques, analysis of the capabilities of Towed Array Sonars utilising various beam-forming and target detection techniques. He has derived novel approaches to calibrating very large underwater acoustic sensor arrays in a shallow water environment and studied, in detail the techniques for tracking very high speed submersibles and the design of more general tracking ranges.


Expert has been heavily involved with Airspace Risk and Safety Assessment by undertaking work, including overseeing sub-contracts, leading to an Overall Risk Model for European En-Route Airspace above Flight Level 290. This includes assessments of operational error effects, using Hazard Analysis techniques, as well as traditional technical error sources.

This work was integrated with other studies undertaken for EUROCONTROL to determine increased risk incurred when reducing permitted Vertical and Lateral Separation Minima between aircraft. The analysis involved determining the inter-relationships between Communications, Surveillance (ADS) and Navigation performance and resultant system risk. He sat on the Joint FAA / EUROCONTROL R&D Committee – Action Plan 3 on Airspace Collision Risk.

Expert also co-ordinated a Workshop on Target Level of Safety (TLS) in Aviation.


Expert has undertaken considerable analysis of the performance, continuity, availability and integrity for individual or integrated navigation systems and the ability of a system/infrastructure combination to support the Required Navigation Performance (RNP) for a given airspace. With the increased use of Satellite systems (GNSS) with and without augmentation, it must be shown that receiver integrity can be maintained (RAIM) and that potential common mode failures do not pose too great a risk.

He has also performed detailed analysis of the European RVSM Monitoring System techniques and results derived there from and has analysed part processed data and detected errors in the monitoring system software including serious systematic errors. He has analysed errors within Height Monitoring Equipments (HMEs) and other multi-laterated systems.

He has also investigated the accuracy, benefits and problems of integrating GPS with existing Avionics Equipment including analysis of GPS Digital Receiver operation and GPS Signal Analysis.

Expert has also implemented Integrated Offshore Systems and thoroughly tested through Trials, and post Trial Data Analysis, the resulting systems.


Expert has investigated Digital Filter Techniques to optimise navigation and positioning systems. He has also prepared a Lecture Course on Kalman Filters which play a major part in the integration and use of complex real-time datasets for navigation and control systems. This course included the basic theory behind the filters and included additional explanations of error characteristics and shortfalls.

Expert has also designed high integrity Real Time Operating Systems using the MASCOT (Modular Approach to System Construction Operation and Test) philosophy.


Expert is familiar with a wide range of Navigational Equipment and its use both in Aviation and Underwater. He designed and implemented the Satellite element of OASIS, the first (1975) integrated satellite positioning and survey system in Europe (using TRANSIT satellites and Underwater Acoustics). He completely redesigned the system in 1989 to use more powerful survey techniques and Differential GPS.

He has designed Integrated Flight Management and Navigation Systems for Aircraft and has studied Navigation and Manoeuvre Algorithms and resultant Track Keeping Errors.

Supporting the basic algorithms, he has studied navigation signal propagation effects (both Radio and Acoustic), Geodetic and Cartographic functions and shadowing effects caused by both receiving vehicle or terrain.


EUROCONTROL - 17 years either on-site or tasking from home base. Expert's primary responsibilities were to determine Airspace Collision Risk and Navigation Capability but also to review other external contracts and to interface with other governmental bodies (including FAA) through specialist groups.Serco Ltd (for UK MoD) - Expert undertook a number of Design Sudies for a redeveloped Underwater (Submarines and Torpedoes) Tracking Range giving an analysis and expected capabilities and optimisation oif the underwater sensor infrastructure.Racal Survey Ltd - Expert prepared several studies concerning Real Time Multisite Differential GPS, mathematical modelling of Differential Global Navigation Satellite Systems and designed, implemented, trialled and put to work and Integrated Satellite/Underwater Acoustic Calibration and Survey System.Dowty Ltd - Expert designed a software package to analyse and demonstrate the capabilities of Towed Array Sonars utilising various beam-forming and target detection techniques.Racal Avionics (for UK MoD) - Expert undertook study analysed the accuracy, benefits and problems of integrating GPS with existing avionics equipment. This was part of UK MoD project NASR 1008 to investigate the integration of GPS receivers with other airborne equipment using simulation and novel analytical methods.

Education

Year Degree Subject Institution
Year: 1973 Degree: Post Graduate Fellowship (Rotary Foundation) Subject: Astronomy Institution: Australian National University
Year: 1972 Degree: Post Graduate Diploma Subject: Computer Science Institution: Cambridge University
Year: 1971 Degree: BA (Honours) Subject: Mathematics Institution: Cambridge University

Work History

Years Employer Title Department Responsibilities
Years: 1993 to 2010 Employer: Largs Systems Limited Title: Director Department: Responsibilities: Expert has undertaken projects on behalf of various clients including Design, Analysis and Studies of specific technical problems. The major client during this period was EUROCONTROL (see below), an inter-governmental agency for Aviation Safety in Europe (equivalent to FAA in USA).
Years: 1993 to 2010 Employer: EUROCONTROL (several contracts) Title: Consultant/Contractor Department: Airspace and Navigation Responsibilities: Expert supported the EUROCONTROL permanent members of staff with the development and implementation of new aviation standards and, particularly, the assessment of European Airspace Collision Risk and Safety. He also sat on several International Specialist Groups and Committees (he was Secretary of one group and sometime Chairman of another).
Years: 1985 to 1993 Employer: Perry Consultants Title: Independent Consultant Department: Responsibilities: Expert operated his own Navigation Consultancy and was involved in all aspects of running a small business including marketing, assessing the viability of projects, and ensuring customer satisfaction. During this time he managed several projects on behalf of various clients including Design, Analysis and Implementation of GPS systems for Avionics, Marine and Survey purposes required involvement at all stages from system specification, through design, performance assessment, implementation, trials and acceptance.
Years: 1980 to 1985 Employer: Bell Electronics / DBE Software Systems Ltd Title: Manager Department: Computer Systems Responsibilities: Expert managed the Computer Systems department of these Underwater Technology companies and was responsible for technical feasibility studies as well as the design, implementation, trials and putting to work of specialist integrated underwater tracking and positioning systems.
Years: 1974 to 1979 Employer: Decca Navigator Company Limited Title: Deputy Head Department: Operations Research and Computer Systems Responsibilities: Expert was responsible for the Satellite segment of the first Integrated Satellite Positioning and Survey System in Europe (OASIS). He was also responsible for the design and implementation of Flight Management Systems and Avionics and underlying analysis and modeling of Radio Navigation System propagation effects.

Government Experience

Years Agency Role Description
Years: 1993 to 2010 Agency: EUROCONTROL (Inter-governmental Agency) Role: Consultant / Contractor Description: EUROCONTROL - 17 years either on-site or tasking from home base. Expert's primary responsibilities were to determine Airspace Collision Risk and Navigation Capability but also to review other external contracts and to interface with other governmental bodies (including FAA) through specialist groups.
Years: 1993 to 1994 Agency: UK CAA Role: Consultant Description: Expert prepared reports on GPS receiver behaviour and also Geodetic and Cartographic Functions.

International Experience

Years Country / Region Summary
Years: 1993 to 2010 Country / Region: Belgium / Brussels Summary: EUROCONTROL – Expert has had numerous contracts for EUROCONTROL spread over 17 years. He has supported the permanent members of staff with the development and implementation of new aviation standards by undertaking supporting Airspace Risk and safety assessments. He has conducted the analysis himself and managed other external contracts on behalf of EUROCONTROL. Between 1993 and 2002 these contracts were full time performed within Eurocontrol Headquarters in Brussels while between 2002 and 2010 the projects have become task based and performed both in Brussels and at his home base in Scotland.

Projects undertaken by Expert included (amongst many others):
• Airspace Risk and Safety Assessment using Mathematical and Hazard Analysis based techniques, leading to reduced Vertical and Lateral Separation Minima between aircraft;
• Navigation Systems and Infrastructure Performance Assessment including Reception Modelling and Terrain Obstruction shadowing;
• Determination of the inter-relationships between Communications, Surveillance (ADS) and Navigation performance and resultant system risk;
• Target Level of Safety; and
• Track Keeping Error Analysis in Flight Management Systems.

In addition, Expert was involved in many international specialist groups including:
• Navigation Sub Group (NSG) of the Airspace and Navigation Team (ANT), as participant and Secretary;
• Mathematicians Drafting Group (MDG), as participant and sometime Chairman; and
• The Joint EUROCONTROL / FAA R&D Committee, where he became the acting Technical Point of Contact for Action Plan 3 (Separation Standards and Collision Risk Assessment) and was instrumental in the setting up of a new Action Plan for Safety.He was also involved with the Joint EUROCAE WG53 / RTCA SC189 Committee and the Satellite Research & Development Sub Group (SRD).
Years: 1988 to 1988 Country / Region: Sweden Summary: Rymbolaget - Swedish Space Corporation - Expert undertook a study of Civil GPS Accuracy and Availability around Sweden, specifically for maritime surveillance operations by the Swedish Coastguard over the Baltic Sea.
Years: 1994 to 1994 Country / Region: Sweden Summary: Telub - Expert prepared a GPS Analysis Package with particular interest in Jamming Effects to understand the capabilities and vulnerabilities of GPS within a noisy or hostile radio environment.
Years: 1989 to 1989 Country / Region: Australia Summary: Racal Survey - Expert trialed an Integrated Satellite / Underwater Acoustic Calibration and Survey System (which he had actually designed, implemented and completed initial testing in the UK).

Career Accomplishments

Associations / Societies
Royal Institute of Navigation (Fellow);
Institute of Mathematics and its Applications (Fellow).
Professional Appointments
Member and Secretary - Navigation Sub Group - EUROCONTROL;
Member and sometime Chairman - Mathematics Drafting Group - EUROCONTROL;
Member and sometime EUROCONTROL Point of Contact - Action Plan 3 - Collision Risk - FAA / EUROCONTROL Joint Research and Development Committee.
Awards / Recognition
Elected Graduate Fellow to study Astronomy - Rotary Foundation (1972);
Elected - Fellow of the Royal Institute of Navigation (2000);
Elected - Fellow of the Institute of Mathematics and its Applications (2010).
Publications and Patents Summary
Nearly 100 papers prepared for specialist groups and committees with limited open distribution, including 20 - 30 major study reports for specific clients.

Additional Experience

Training / Seminars
Expert has prepared a Training Course on Kalman Filters; and
co-ordinated Seminar on Target Level of Safety.
Vendor Selection
While acting as a consultant to EUROCONTROL, Expert was responsible for pre-selecting tenders submitted for external airspace related contracts.
Marketing Experience
Expert, while a consultant to EUROCONTROL, was a member of several specialist aviation groups and has made numerous contacts worldwide associated with aviation safety and risk analysis.
Other Relevant Experience
Expert is particularly well placed to analyse data from established aviation related systems and determine how well they perform and detect the existance of embedded systematic errors.

Language Skills

Language Proficiency
French To UK GCE 'O' level
Swedish Can hold conversation in Swedish but reading and writing in Swedish is rather basic.

Fields of Expertise

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