Expert Details

Expert in Polymer Selection for Food, Automotive, and Electronic Markets

Expert ID: 108206 New Zealand

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Expert has an in-depth understanding of the high-pressure synthesis copolymerization of ethylene with combinations of co-monomers such as acrylates, vinyl acetate, (meth)acrylic acid, and carbon monoxide. His knowledge results from the high-pressure pilot plant work performed under his direction to make new, soft thermoplastic and thermoset polymers. He is familiar with ethylene-propylene, ethylene-tetrafluoroethylene, and ethylene-vinyl alcohol copolymers.

Expert's broad knowledge of the versatility of ethylene copolymers was gained while he managed research that led to the discovery of the highly-crystalline polar polymers (based on ethylene, butyl acrylate, and carbon monoxide) that are used as permanent plasticizers for PVC and for re-toughening recycled ABS and nylon. The amorphous, high-temperature, oil-resistant ethylene, methyl acrylate elastomer was also developed under his direction.

Over the course of his career, Expert has gained experience with combining mutually incompatible polymers in order to achieve unusual combinations of performance properties. He has worked with nylon/ethylene copolymers (for toughening, flexibility, and to provide a Freon-resistant barrier) and polypropylene/ethylene copolymers (for creating thermoplastic elastomers).

Expert supervised the development of high-temperature, oil-resistant, non-halogenated ethylene-methyl acrylate elastomers. This required an understanding of the polymeric structure and chemistry responsible for the performance characteristics (deficiencies and benefits) of other elastomers, both halogenated and halogen-free. He is familiar with compounding elastomers with polymeric and inorganic additives for enhanced hot-tear-resistance and fire resistance.


Expert directed research in monomer synthesis (perfluoro vinyl ethers and curesite monomers), as well as their polymerization with tetrafluoroethylene to create new thermoplastic and thermoset fluoropolymers.

Expert has a complete understanding of the structure-property relationship of fluoropolymers with regard to their processing and ultimate end use as coatings, extruded shapes, molded parts, film, or wire coatings.


Expert has first-hand knowledge of the unique fabrication processes required to convert PTFE into finished articles. This covers the pre-forming and sintering steps to convert granular PTFE into molded shapes or ram extruded profiles, the paste-extrusion of fine powder PTFE into unsintered tape, and the paste-extrusion/drying/sintering of fine powder PTFE into hose, tubing, and wire insulation. He is also familiar with coating substrates with a PTFE aqueous dispersion.


Expert is familiar with ethylene, (meth)acrylic-based acid ionomer technology. He is especially knowledgeable of this material's use in the packaging industry and a blend used in the manufacture of golfball covers.


Expert is very familiar with the barrier properties of polyesters, polyamides, ionomers, and ethylene-vinyl alcohol used in combination with each other in food packaging. He is also knowledgeable of the co-extrudable adhesives that are essential when incompatible barrier materials are combined into a multilayer packaging structure with rigid materials such as polypropylene or aluminum foil.


Expert has managed the development of versatile, highly crystalline, polar polymers aimed at specific end uses based, for example, on ethylene, butyl acrylate, and carbon monoxide. These products are used as plasticizers for flexible PVC and for the toughening of recycled ABS. An oil-resistant, non-halogenated elastomer (VAMAC) was also developed under his direction.


Having directed the research effort for the polymerization of tetrafluoroethylene with combinations of monomers, Expert has created high-temperature, chemical-resistant fluoroelastomers. He is familiar with hexafluoropropylene, vinylidene fluoride, and perfluoroalkyl vinyl ethers along with the appropriate cure-site monomers.


A significant portion of Expert's career has been in fluoropolymer chemistry. As a researcher, he developed the aqueous polymerization route to "Teflon" PFA. He was instrumental in developing today's understanding of the end group chemistry of Teflon TFE, which is critical to its thermal stability. Expert is thoroughly familiar with the plant-scale polymerization of tetrafluoroethylene to make PTFE and its copolymers fluorinated ethylene-propylene (FEP), perfluoroalkoxy-tetrafluoroethylene (PFA), tetrafluoroethylene-ethylene (ETFE), and fluoroelastomers. This includes the safe handling of the highly reactive monomers used in these syntheses.


Expert directed both process and product research for thermoplastic and thermoset fluoropolymers (Teflon, TFE, PFA, FEP, Tefzel, Kalrez, and Viton), as well as perfluorovinyl ether and curesite monomer synthesis. He was deeply involved in developing new, non-military markets for fluoropolymers, working closely with architectural and engineering design houses. This led to the adoption of fluoropolymers for applications in bearing pads, curtain walls and tunnels, and power cable insulation for rapid transit systems.


REACTIVE COMPOUNDING. Expert led the effort to develop a unique, generic reactive compounding of crystalline and amorphous polymers on which the new flexible nylon, Zytel FN is based. This technology has the potential to deliver recyclable flexible articles that are now based on non-recyclable PVC.

FLUOROMONOMER. Expert managed the synthesis of perfluorovinyl ether monomers, vital to development of Teflon PFA and Kalrez. This involved the safe handling of explosive/toxic tetrafluoroethylene and hexafluoropropylene.

A polymer's "architecture" defines the ease with which it will crystallize from the molten state during processing - and determine, for instance, whether a heated mold is required to allow the optimization of crystalline (mechanical,chemical, and barrier properties.
Selection between polyphenylene sulfide, LCP, or polyetherketone for a high temperature electronic application could be based on their relative rates of crystallization in relatively cool molds.

In order to select the appropriate ethylene resin for an application it is essential that one has an understanding of the subtleties between the structures of low density PE, linear low density PE, high density PE and the metallocene-catalysis base PE's.
Each has a specific manufacturing process that defines their level of crystallinity in th solid state which, in turn, determines their mechanical and thermal properties(higher density provides higher mechanical strength).
The presence of long chain branching in low density PE provides excellent melt processibility - a feature not shared by other polyethylenes. Recent long-chain branched, metallocene-based, linear low density PE has succeeded in matching the processing of low density PE

Thr development of Teflon PFA has provided what is essentially a melt processible PTFE. The property spectrum of heat and chemical resistance, combined with excellent electrical and radiation-resistance performance compares with (and can surpass) that established for PTFE.The performance of PFA is superior to that of Teflon FEP - as is the price.

The new amorphous Teflon AF, and Cytop (Asahi) offer a PTFE-type material that can be dissolved in specific solvents (such as 3M's FC 75) and applied as thin coatings to metal substrates. Thin coatings act as gas separation membranes to provide, for example, enriched oxygen from air. These amorphous polymers have glass transition temperatures from 108 to 240 dgrees Celcius.

The 'original' fluorocarbon resins are offered as powders that must be processed either like a ceramic(preformed and sintered), or "paste extruded" by mixing with a hydrocarbon lubricant,preformed, squeezed through a forming die, and sintered - ending up either as a wire coating or as hollow tubing.Parts made from these polymers have high crystallinity, do not melt, and can be used for extended time periods at elevated temperatures.
The melt processible fluoropolymers (FEP and PFA)offer melt processibility and thus sacrifice the high temperature capability of PTFE.
The copolymer of TFE and ethylene (Tefzel) brings a uniquely high degree of toughness to the fluoropolymer, essential for its use as a cut-through resistant wire coating polymer.

Polymer design has, over the last 20 years, led to the development of semi-crystalline polymer structures that are capable of withstanding extremes of heat,thermal aging, radiation, chemical exposure and mechanical abuse. Thes attributes, in combination with relative ease of processing, have allowed these polymers to displace thermosets such as diallyl phthalate in electronic components that must withstand accidental overload as well as resist the thermal "shock" of surface mount technology during printed curcuit component assembly.
Typical of these aromatic polymers are polyphenylene sulfide, polyetherketone, poly ethylenenaphthalate, polycyclohexanedimethanol terephthalate, and liquid crystal polymers.

Perfluoroalkoxy polymers are coplymers derived from tetrafluoroethylene and monomers synthesised from perfluorovinyl ethers such as perfluoropropylvinyl ether (PPVE) or perfluoromethyl vinyl ether (PMVE). Both of these monomers are derived from hexafluoropropylene epoxide (HFPO) - a product of the reaction between HFP and oxygen under controlled comditions.The PPVE is the comonomer, with TFE, that generates Teflon PFA. The PMVE (ceated from HFPO and carbonyl fluoride)is the comonomer that with TFE provides the elastomer Kalrez.
Teflon PFA has the end-use property/ performance profile of PTFE but can be melt processed at temperatures above 360 degrees Celcius.

Education

Year Degree Subject Institution
Year: 1962 Degree: PhD Subject: Organic Chemistry Institution: University of Durham, England
Year: 1959 Degree: BS Subject: Chemistry Institution: University of Durham, England

Work History

Years Employer Title Department Responsibilities
Years: 1992 to Present Employer: Undisclosed Title: Principal Consultant Department: Responsibilities: New product development (oil-resistant thermo plastic elastomers), new applications (TPE's for closures and fluoro polymers for gas separation membranes), and problem solving (thermoset and thermo plastic)
Years: 1990 to 1992 Employer: DuPont Company Title: Manager of Technology Development Department: Responsibilities:
Years: 1971 to 1990 Employer: DuPont Company Title: Senior Research Supervisor Department: Responsibilities:
Years: 1965 to 1971 Employer: DuPont Company Title: Department: Marketing/Technical Representative Responsibilities:
Years: 1961 to 1965 Employer: DuPont Company Title: Research Chemist Department: Responsibilities:

International Experience

Years Country / Region Summary
Years: to Present Country / Region: Japan Summary: While with DuPont, Expert made annual visits to the ethylene copolymer sites in Japan (Chiba and Otake).
Years: to Present Country / Region: Switzerland and the United Kingdom Summary: Expert also made a visit to Switzerland and the United Kingdom each year.

Career Accomplishments

Associations / Societies
Expert is a senior member of the Society of Plastics Engineers.
Publications and Patents Summary
Expert has a number of patents.

Additional Experience

Expert Witness Experience
Expert provided expert witness in the successful defense of a client sued in a product failure suit involving toughened nylon.
Training / Seminars
He is currently teaching an advanced course in Polymer Technolgy at Auckland University (NZ).
Marketing Experience
He was responsible for the introduction of Teflon into non-military applications. He managed the "New Business Development" group for DuPont Research, bringing new polymer and polymer alloy developments to the marketplace.

Fields of Expertise

ethylene copolymerization, ethylene copolymer, polymer compatibility, elastomer chemistry, elastomer property, elastomer selection, elastomer structure, fluoropolymer research, fluoropolymer, fluorocarbon polymer, fluoropolymer processing, polytetrafluoroethylene processing, polytetrafluoroethylene ram extrusion, ionomer, barrier polymer, ethylene-vinyl alcohol copolymer, copolymer formulation, fluoroelastomer, fluorocarbon elastomer, fluoropolymer polymerization, fluoropolymer product, fluoropolymer technology, fluoropolymer marketing, crystalline-polymer structure-property relationship, ethylene resin, fluorocarbon plastic material, fluorocarbon resin, high-polymer structure-property relationship, perfluoroalkoxy, product failure, multi-layered packaging material, barrier film technology, fluoroaromatic, elastomer blend, polytetrafluoroethylene etching, neoprene, membrane material, polytetrafluoroethylene tubing, elastomer formulation, rubber handling, polyvinyl chloride compounding, high-temperature elastomer, chlorinated polyethylene elastomer, dehydrofluorination, non-stick coating material, fluorinated ethylene propylene film, ethylene-vinyl acetate extrusion, tetrafluoroethylene-propylene copolymer, rubber durometer, rubber insulation, permeable packaging material, GoreTex, fluorochemical, Surlyn, autoclavable plastic material selection, rubber selection, cellular polytetrafluoroethylene, Teflon coating material, Teflon coating process, heat-shrinkable fluorinated ethylene propylene tubing, heat-shrinkable tubing, polytetrafluoroethylene tape, elastomer mechanical property, elastomer selection for chemical compatibility, polymer selection for chemical compatibility, rubber degradation, engineering plastic formulation, rubber masterbatch, elastomer compounding, perfluorocarbon, fire resistance, ethylene-propylene random copolymer, polyvinyl fluoride, polyvinylidene fluoride, rubber formulation, fluorocarbon film material property, rubber compounding, polyethylene structure-property relationship, polymer structure-property relationship, polyimide structure-property relationship, polyamide structure-property relationship, structure-property relationship, elastomer application, elastomer synthesis, ethylene-tetrafluoroethylene, ethylene-chlorotrifluoroethylene copolymer, fluorinated ethylene propylene, heat-shrinkable polymer film, heat-shrinkable fluoropolymer, isostatic molding, hydrostatic molding, rubber product, flame-resistant elastomer, fire-resistant plastic, flexible packaging material, fluorocarbon polymer film, plastic packaging material, tetrafluoroethylene polymer, ethylene-vinyl alcohol copolymer, packaging film, barrier film, organofluorine chemistry, vinylidene fluoride hexafluoropropylene tetrafluorethylene, acrylic elastomer, ethylene-propylene terpolymer, polytetrafluoroethylene, packaging material, fluorine chemistry, copolymer, fluorocarbon, tie layer, tetrafluoroethylene, Teflon fiber, rubber chemistry, rubber, polymerization, polymer selection, polymer modification chemistry, polymer extrusion, polymer compounding, polymer chemistry, plasticizer, hydrolysis, heat-shrinkable plastic, fluorocarbon fiber, elastomer, elastomer processing, rubber processing

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