Expert Details

Expert in Protection Design, Testing, Data Analyses, EMP, EMC, COMSEC, ZONING, TEMPEST

Expert ID: 723620 Spain

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The electromagnetic protection process is an evaluation of risk assessment against criteria (EMP, EMI/EMC, TEMPEST, EM-health). The entire process covers mainly: risk evaluation, design, construction, maintenance and testing. Starting from the risk evaluation, the different aspects of electromagnetic protection can be combined. This is because they use the same physics laws and, in most cases, the same protection devices (such as shields and filters). Combining these different aspects are not only a major cost reduction but also are necessary to avoid conflicts between the different levels of protection. (Ex. double filtering: EMP, TEMPEST) To provide an effective electromagnetic protection, one of the main problems is to solve the filtering conflict caused by the increased communication speeds and the bandwidth limitations of the protection. It is physically not possible to separate the conducted electromagnetical risks from the spatial ones. The entire process should not be limited to design and construction. In the basic design the necessity for maintenance due to use and aging, modifications due to changing criteria and the testing program should be considered in addition to the initial required protection. The entire process must include supporting systems (HVAC) that can be a risk factor and can be a survivability factor of the system (EMP/LIGHTNING) Any EM-protection process is therefore based on a good configuration control of the entire system and its environment. Expert has an extended (over 20 years) expertise in the entire process (risk assessment, design, maintenance and testing) of electromagnetic protection.

EMP was since 1960's considered as a risk related to nuclear weapons and was considered to be a great risk during the cold war. Since then, the risk has changed. On one side, the increased use of high-speed communications and wireless communications has created a major increase of vulnerability to even small EMP pulses. On the other hand, EM-Pulses can now be generated by (trans) portable weapons/systems, and do not require any nuclear device. In addition, the increased vulnerability to natural EMP (such as lightning and power surges) and the possibility of terrorist use of EMP become a concern. Expert performed design evaluation and testing / analyses on a large scale to be able to assess the EMP survivability of entire networks of communication systems.

NEMP or exo-atmospheric EMP is generated when a nuclear device is detonated outside the atmosphere. A ground nuclear burst will also cause an EMP but with only a local impact while the exo-EMP can affect a region the size of Europe (20MT) and has no other effects such as heat wave, shock wave and nuclear fallout and radiation
It is considered to be an effective way to shut down operational and military communications and electronic systems without losing the re-use of the terrain and facilities. There were also no direct effects on biological life.
By the end of the cold war, the risk of this type of EMP is considered by some defense organizations as being reduced.
The risk still exists and many defense organizations now apply NEMP protection only for mission essential equipment and systems (such as nuclear command and control)
The existing EMP facilities and systems that are still operational do however also provide the required protection for TEMPEST, EMI/EMC, and zoning. Reduction of the EMP-protection will affect the other protections.
The risks for NEMP might have, for now, reduced, the risk for EMP (non-nuclear) might have increased.
Expert was the system manager for the EMP program in NATO.

Radio frequency shielding or RF-shielding has changed throughout the years. The frequency span used today is rather different from when this technology was created.
The physical aspects however remain the same and the basic technology used has not changed either.
The main concept is to create a FARADAY-cage. Such cage is, in principle, a box of a uniform material that provides protection against radio-frequency electromagnetic waves. This obtained through 2 aspects: ABSORBPTION and REFLECTION.
The absorption is mainly for the magnetic part of the electromagnetic wave while the reflection acts mainly on the electrical part of the wave.
These 2 different aspects of shielding must be considered when designing the RF shielding. The design must be based on the frequency range where the shielding must be most effective. This is obtained by the selection of the most efficient shielding material (Such as steel, non Ferro, aluminum, copper etc.).
A faraday cage with no entrance for signal, air, personnel, power etc has no much use. Providing this access for the different “users and providers” into the shield is the most difficult part of the shield design.
Expert performed over 20 years of R&D, testing/analyses and management of RF shielded concepts used for:
Individual systems (COMSEC/INFOSEC)
Test/calibration rooms
EMP facilities
COMSEC/ZONING facilities

A TEMPEST system is a system that is protected against electromagnetic espionage. Every electric / electronic system has an electromagnetic signature. This signature contains information about the actions taken by this equipment. This problem was initially clearly detected with the introduction of the telegraphic equipment (teletype). The possibility to listen “into” electronic systems increased with the growth of electronics and the introduction of CRT-screens and computers.
With the modern electronics, it became on one hand more difficult to detect the signals because signal levels (current and voltage) were lower and a more frequent and grouped amount of systems. On the other hand however, the information per time unit increases drastically. (From 200 baud/s for teletype in 1970 to 2 Mb/s fro ISDN today)
This change in risk also has an effect on the frequency range to evaluate for TEMPEST and the complexity of the signal.
Testing systems against TEMPESR CRITERIA became very complex. This is due to the increased possibilities of the systems to be tested.
A full understanding of the electronics and the software of today’s systems are required to generate a complete test-plan to test against TEMPEST criteria.
With the introduction of the EMC/EMI compliance testing of most equipment, there is already a basic to perform a first assessment.
TEMPEST is not only equipment design related but is also installation dependent.
With the current ZONING policies for military installations, a risk reduction can be obtained for installation related risks, provided a complete zoning evaluation.
In the context of zoning, the use of shielded facilities or equipment can still be considered as the most efficient TEMPEST protection.
Expert worked for 5 years as TEMPEST analyst in laboratory and in the field.
He also combined the different aspects of tempest protection with EMP, EMI/EMC protection.

He was the concept designer of the optical active EM-filters for communications.
This concept was designed in laboratory conditions and the technology then introduced for commercial production. These filters are used world wide and are still in production.As independent consultant, regenerated and restructured the data-base of a technical/medical company.
The original system became inaccessible due to a contractual failure by the original designer.
(Worked on unix)
The entire data-base and data was recovered, updated and the system was upgraded (including conversion to EURO)As independent consultant, he designed the light, communications, computer network and security system for a lawyer office.
All technology was incorporated in a user friendly and economic system with the respect for the ancient (antique) interior of the building.As consultant, he designed the QA procedures and generated/wrote the software for the QA testing of electronic multi protocol (comms) interfaces.
This included also the data evaluation criteria and mathematics and also the reporting procedure.As consultant performed an evaluation study on EMP and diesel cars

Education

Year Degree Subject Institution
Year: 1980 Degree: Eng Subject: Telecommunications Institution: Mil Academy
Year: 1978 Degree: Eng Subject: Electronics Institution: Mil Academy
Year: 1984 Degree: Post Graduate Work Subject: Scientific Programming Institution: City College of Chicago

Work History

Years Employer Title Department Responsibilities
Years: 1984 to 2005 Employer: NATO Title: System manager EMEP Department: NCSA Responsibilities: He was the manager for the international EMEP (electro magnetics protection program) handeling testing maintenance and design. This program was multi national funded with its own labs, engineers and budget.
Years: 1980 to 1984 Employer: AIR FORCE Title: Test eng / analyst Department: International (EMSEC) Responsibilities: As part of grad training, performing lab and on site TEMPEST testing and data analyses.

Government Experience

Years Agency Role Description
Years: 1984 to 2005 Agency: NATO Role: EMEP system manager Description: In this function he was responsable for:
- program managment
- funding (international)
- engineer team
- test facilities
- R&D
- policies and technology
NATO WIDE
Years: 1980 to 1984 Agency: AIR FORCE Role: test engineer TEMPEST Description: He performed on site and in-lab testing and analyses on TEMPEST criteria.

International Experience

Years Country / Region Summary
Years: 1984 to 2005 Country / Region: All NATO Countries Summary: As the system manager EMEP, he had to coordinate all testing maintenance and installation of EMEP facilities.
This requires interventions and coordination with the local authoroties.
His multi-language skills are an asset.
His area of working includes Europe, US, Canada, and Iceland.

Career Accomplishments

Associations / Societies
IEEE member since 1998
Licenses / Certifications
EMEP trainer
UNIX system manager
SQL system manager
Professional Appointments
System manager NATO EMEP program
Test engineer / analyst EMP
Awards / Recognition
20 years NATO service
Publications and Patents Summary
He was the author for the international document on procedures and techniques for EMEP maintenance and testing.

He is the designer and programmer of the EMEP DATA-BASE that handles the data and managment of the NATO EMEP program.

He is the programmer of the NATO EMP test system.

He is the designer / programmer of the EMEP data analyses and data presentation software used in relation with the test system.

He was the co-author / co-ordinator of the NATO-wide EMP training program

He recently submitted a booklet on "electromagnetics in every day life" for the general public, for publication.

Additional Experience

Expert Witness Experience
He is recognised as the NATO authority on design and testing evaluation of shielded enclosures (farady) and filter applications used for EMP EMC/EMI TEMPEST/ZONING EM-health
Training / Seminars
He was the co-author / coordinator of the NATO EMP TRAINING PROGRAM

Language Skills

Language Proficiency
English this was his main working language for the last 20 years. With a good knowledge of technical terms
French This is a required language to work in certain parts of Europe
Dutch This is his mother tonge

Fields of Expertise

electromagnetic protection process, electromagnetic shielding process, electromagnetism, electromagnetic pulse, nuclear electromagnetic pulse, radio-frequency shielding, communications security, data protection, zoning, tempest system, antique, laboratory testing, nuclear weapon safety, nuclear safety, command, control, communication and intelligence, electrical laboratory, high-voltage testing, compliance testing, electrical failure, electronic security, conducted electromagnetic interference, radio-frequency radiation safety, instrument enclosure, military standard-461, electronic shielding, series suppressor, antenna analysis, radio frequency circuit, electromagnetic interference conductive coating, radio-frequency electronic equipment, electromagnetic immunity, acceptable quality level, short circuit, electrically conductive gasket, current-limiting fuse, loop test, induction charging, analog circuit simulation, electromagnetic interference test, radio frequency test instrumentation, inductive coupling, signal analyzer, analog instrumentation, antenna illumination, antenna design, electronics test equipment, electric circuit element testing, nuclear, biological, and chemical personal protection equipment, nuclear, biological, and chemical contamination survivability, electronics reliability testing, electronics seal testing, electromagnetic interference source minimization, electrical cable, electronics nondestructive testing, electric potential, electromagnetic susceptibility, electric instrument, electromagnetic interference filter, radio-frequency measurement, telecommunication disaster, electric surge protector, electronics engineering, electromagnetic compatibility measurement, electric field theory, very large-scale integration testing, electronics fault testing, automatic electronics testing, high-current arc, alternating-current transformer, data communication, data transmission, electromagnetic radiation, communication, system-generated electromagnetic pulse, computer security system, transformation, electrical phenomenon, electrical science, compromising emanation, electromagnetic component, nuclear defense, microwave frequency, electromagnetic emission, electric current, electromagnetic compatibility, radio-frequency interference, electromagnetic interference, microwave radiation, security system, radio-frequency filter, radio antenna, radar interference, nuclear biological chemical defense, environmental chamber, electronics testing, electronic device reliability, electromagnetics, electromagnetic field, electrical testing, electric breakdown, electric arc, component testing, antenna

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