Expert Details

Expert in Psychology of Thinking, Reasoning and Decision Making with particular expertise in Cognitive Biases

Expert ID: 729018 United Kingdom

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Expert has run a large program of research on the psychology of thinking and reasoning since the early 1970’s, authoring eight books and numerous scientific papers on these topics. His early work focussed on cognitive biases in reasoning, judgment and decision making, an interest which he has retained to the present day. He conducted pioneering studies in on several such biases, including the now intensively studied influence of belief bias on reasoning. People – even of high intelligence – will tend to claim that conclusions follow from arguments when they agree with the conclusions. Conversely, they deny the validity of arguments whose conclusions they disagree with. This bias is related to, but distinct from, confirmation bias – the tendency selectively to seek evidence to support existing beliefs.
In addition to his expertise in experimental cognitive psychology, Expert is also a theorist. His study of bias in human reasoning led him to develop early versions of what are now called ‘dual process’ theories of thinking and reasoning in the 1970’s and 80’s. Such theories distinguish fast, intuitive processes (Type 1) from slower, reflective ones (Type 2). Dual process theories are now widespread in cognitive and social psychology. Expert has been extensively involved in the development of modern, high –profile versions of this theory over the past 15 years, in conjunction with leading cognitive scientists such as Danny Kahneman and Keith Stanovich. Expert is considered one of the world’s leading experts on the topic, and has accepted recent invitations to review the field for premier scientific journals (Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 2003; Annual Review of Psychology, 2008) as well as publishing several recent books on the topic.
Expert has also argued in many publications for the integration of the psychology of reasoning and decision making. Throughout his career he has conducted regular research on judgement and decision making, as well as reasoning, and sought common theoretical interpretation of the two fields. His interest in cognitive biases and dual processes are applied also to these topics.
Expert has experience of applied research and consultancy including studies of medical decision making, engineering design and educational testing. Now an Emeritus Expert and freed from routine university duties, he wishes to spend more of his time applying his knowledge to the solution of real world problems.


Educational Testing Services, Princeton 1997-2000:
Expert, with colleagues at Plymouth, provided applied research and consultancy to ETS concerning the analytical reasoning items in the GRE. Expert had particular responsibility for developing software to generate items automatically and instantiate metrics of item difficulty. As a result, ETS were able to automate item production.Unilever, UK, 2006:
Expert prepared a report discussing the implications of dual process theory for product design and marketing.

Education

Year Degree Subject Institution
Year: 1969 Degree: BSc Subject: Psychology Institution: University College London
Year: 1972 Degree: PhD Subject: Psychology Institution: University College London

Work History

Years Employer Title Department Responsibilities
Years: 1974 to 2009 Employer: University of Plymouth, UK Title: Professor of Cognitive Psychology Department: Psychology Responsibilities: Teaching and research. Expert since 1985. Head of School of Psychology, 1999-2005. Retired with title of Emeritus Expert, August 2009,
Years: 1971 to 1974 Employer: City of London Polytechnic, UK Title: Lecturer Department: Psychology Responsibilities: Teaching and research.

Government Experience

Years Agency Role Description
Years: 1989 to 1993 Agency: Army Personnel Research Establishment (UK) Role: Consultant Description: Expert was part of a team who advised on the development of psychometric tests for army recruitment

International Experience

Years Country / Region Summary
Years: 2010 to 2010 Country / Region: USA Summary: Endowed visiting lecturer, University of Washington, Seattle. Presented two talks and met with several senior faculty.
Years: 1996 to 1996 Country / Region: France Summary: Visiting Expert, CREPCO research centre, Aix-en-Provence. Collaborative resarch.
Years: 1982 to 1982 Country / Region: USA Summary: Visiting Expert, University of Florida, Gainesville. Taught a full semester course and engaged in collaborative research.

Career Accomplishments

Associations / Societies
Experimental Psychology Society
Professional Appointments
Editor, Thinking & Reasoning (since 1995);
Editorial Board, Psychological Review
Awards / Recognition
Keynote and invited speakers at numerous overseas events. Recent talks include thos given at Brown University (2004), Princeton University (2007), University of Washington (2010) and University of Geneva (2010).
Publications and Patents Summary
In his career, Expert has published 8 authored books (4 since 2000), 3 edited books, 141 refereed journal articles (50 since 2000), and approximately 50 other chapters and papers.

Fields of Expertise

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