Expert Details

Expert in Welding, Fabrication, Failure Analysis conventional and nuclear stainless & nickel base

Expert ID: 723069 Pennsylvania, USA

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Expert learned that stainless steel parts in a carbon steel world are welded to another metal. Success requires attention, not only to chemistry mixtures (metallurgy) (Ferrite Diagrams), but also to mechanical forces before and during welding, as well as service loads. (Mechanical Engineering Background) Without full attention to all details, this joint is a candidate for later mechanical failure.

Metal from a steel plant must be formed to be useful to customers. For over 30 years, the expert found forming a common complaint issue with customers. "This coil is different than the last, irrespective of specifications and test results." The expert became very knowledgeable in the deep draw and stretching operations common to stainless steel fabrication. Tests are on coil ends. Forming is internal. Solutions were found in either the metal, in forming techniques or combinations.

Inherent ductility is one of the reasons to select metal over other materials. Stainless alloys can mimic other ferrous metals, being austenitic, ferritic, duplex or martensitic. However, Expert learned over 30 years that there are other options available in austenitic and semi-austenitic stainless alloys that can help to improve product yields. Mechanical behavior is also an important part in all the mechanical preparations before welding.

Expert found pipe and tube welding a frequent complaint issue. He has visited many mills. This process, at its heart, is a full-length evaluation of chemistry, dimensions and mechanical properties. Typically, parameters are selected to maximize productivity but unwittingly put demands on the equilibrium of many other factors. The result is that small variations in metal properties, weld conditions or other important physical factors can result in a "bad" weld. Expert has long years of experience finding the reasons for "bad" and the "robust" conditions needed to avoid such welds.

Expert finds that welding is an optimistic business where an operation lasting seconds is expected to produce properties taking significantly greater time and effort everywhere else. Welding is thermally inefficient. Small variations in efficiency produce localized results deemed "failures". But on a root cause basis, these are just the weld properties that result from some different set of welding conditions. Identifying and controlling the factors that allowed this behavior is the essence of finding the root cause for a weld failure. Expert has many years of lab and field experience. Pipe and tube welds are classic examples.

Array

He has demonstrated that supposed fatigue failures with actual parts were actually the result of severe test conditions not material deficiencies. Experience had suggested that additional un-cracked samples should be examined. These parts actually contained small crack sites.He has worked closely between tube mills back through mill processing to the melt shop to develop solutions to sporadic problems that had inhibited welding speed. Particular attention is due toward slit edge condition and metallurgical cleanliness. Tube mills also have many mechanical and operational requirements.He has found many examples where small amounts of copper surface contamination have caused cracks in stainless steel. He is experienced in finding the sources of the small but lethal copper sources. He has also detected problems that relate back to seemingly trivial failures to pre-clean material.A visit to a supposedly unusual corrosion site was found at its source to be iron contamination presented in an unusual form, not the potentially severe corrosion condition that had been feared.A review of returned stainless steel pump parts found that the problem was not related to heat affected corrosion as seemed plausible but rather related back to lack of good welding controls.

Expert may consult nationally and internationally, and is also local to the following cities: Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania - Akron, Ohio - Youngstown, Ohio - Canton, Ohio

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Education

Year Degree Subject Institution
Year: 1966 Degree: MS Subject: Metallurgical Engineering Institution: Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute
Year: 1961 Degree: BES Subject: Mechanics Institution: The Johns Hopkins University

Work History

Years Employer Title Department Responsibilities
Years: 2004 to Present Employer: Undisclosed Title: Senior Project Engineer Department: JJMA Propulsion Division Responsibilities: He provides metallurgical expertise for new Naval applications of stainless steel, alloy steel, aluminum and titanium, with special emphasis on avoiding failure. He considers the application from design through to final ship decommissioning.
Years: 2002 to 2004 Employer: Matco Associates Title: Senior Materials Engineer Department: Responsibilities: He planned cost-time estimates and executed technical programs for diverse clients to explain materials failure problems. He explained failures for materials extended over carbon steel, aluminum, and stainless steel, which failed by corrosion, fracture or other processes.
Years: 1999 to 2000 Employer: Shanghai Stal Precision Stainless Steel Title: Metallurgist Department: Responsibilities: He was one of two Allegheny Ludlum metallurgists providing in-plant technology transfer assistance to Allegheny Ludlum's joint venture partner. He visited Chinese customers to provide metallurgical advice, and helped to transfer production technology.
Years: 1966 to 1998 Employer: Allegheny Ludlum Steel Title: Research Associate Department: Responsibilities: He solved many of the unusual customer complaints that reached the technical center. These involved welding, tube welding in particular, and part forming. He did the laboratory investigations and presented the results to change procedures in either the mill's production or customer's procedures as indicated by the data. He has extensive experience with welding, forming and cracking problems in many customer plants. He built a clientele who called with many problem and application questions on stainless steel, nickel alloys and electrical steel. He has presented formal papers and given many informal presentations on the use of stainless steels. He has also worked in the steel mill environment to eliminate many quality issues. Mechanical surface problems and the survival of mill-made welds were a particular interest.
Years: 1961 to 1966 Employer: General Electric Title: Mechanical Metallurgist Department: Responsibilities: Following an engineering training program, he was responsible for investigating the mechanical properties of irradiated metal in naval reactors.

International Experience

Years Country / Region Summary
Years: 1999 to 2000 Country / Region: Shanghai China Summary: As one of two plant metallurgists he helped to transfer steel mill rolling, annealing, and slitting data to a joint venture. He also visited customers to establish requirements and discuss stainless applications.
Years: 2005 to 2005 Country / Region: Korea Summary: Upon request of previous employer he visited customer to review mechanical fabrication and welding conditions for production of large pipes of specialty stainless steel to be used in a nuclear power plant. His experience suggested that specific improvements in seemngly minor factors were quite important.

Career Accomplishments

Associations / Societies
He is a member ASM International and Past Chairman of the Pittsburgh section.
Licenses / Certifications
He is a Professional Engineer in Pennsylvania.
Professional Appointments
He is a past chairman of the Industrial Advisory Board at the Edison Welding Institute.
He has been an author and reviewer of various ASM International publications.
Publications and Patents Summary
He has over six published articles on stainless steel. He has given many talks on stainless steel and stainless steel welding to AWS local sections. He has two patents.

Additional Experience

Training / Seminars
He has taught ASM home study programs to non-technical personnel. These courses were modified to be meaningful to the company involved. He developed talks on stainless for local ASM and AWS sections. He rewrote a home study ASM chapter on precipitation-hardened stainless steel.
Marketing Experience
He has provided the laboratory support to programs aimed at using stainless steel in new applications. For many years he was involved in annual model change-over to avoid problems with high frequency welded automotive exhaust tubing.
Other Relevant Experience
He has been a member of various national committees, such as the High Alloys committee of the Welding Research Council.

Fields of Expertise

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