Expert Details

Expert in X-Ray Imaging

Expert ID: 107710 Massachusetts, USA

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Expert is the inventor, designer, and project scientist/program manager of a number of different X-ray imaging systems, ranging from satellite-based X-ray telescopes to large systems for nondestructive imaging of 50 ton rocket motors and nuclear pressure vessels. Expert has both designed and implemented these X-ray imaging systems, including the associated image processing software and data analysis schemes. These systems include computed tomography, realtime radiography, and even traditional film-based systems. Expert holds a number of patents in X-ray imaging technology.

Expert is the inventor and chief technical architect in building at least three separate computed tomography (CT-scanning) systems. He is the individual most closely associated with transitioning CT from medical to non-medical uses. His systems are currently used to make cross-sectional images of the inside of America's largest solid rocket motors (1-2 meters diameter), and he currently holds contracts with NASA and the Air Force to amplify and streamline CT technology for faster, higher resolution, and cheaper implementation.

Expert was the project scientist on several satellite based experiments under NASA aegis. Among others, these experiments included the Einstein observatory and the X-ray/XUV solar X-ray imaging payload on the International Solar Polar Mission. During this time, Expert led the team that developed the imaging charge-coupled device (CCD) for imaging solar X-rays and XUV, and designed the image acquisition sequence and data analysis methods for these experiments.

Expert has designed a number of novel devices for the detection of X-rays, gamma rays, and energetic particles. He has used all kinds of X-ray and gamma ray sources, including isotopes, continuous wave X-ray generators, constant potential tube, electron linear accelerator X-ray sources, extending from 1 kV well up into the 10-100 MeV range. Expert has also designed facilities for the use of such equipment, including radiation shielding.

Expert provides technical and management support to companies in need of restructuring, redirection, or re-organization. These programs extend from the introduction of modern technology for a major US shoe company to strategic alliances between small, technology-rich companies and big companies with markets and capital. Re-orientation from a defense market to a commercial market is a specialty. Expert is responsible for defining a start-up product (freeze-frame x-ray cross-sectional imaging) for an existing small company. This program is funded almost completely from non-company funds, and when complete, will give the company a protected technology in a federally mandated inspection program for airplane components. Expert also provides technical oversight for the team over the course of the program. He developed the original idea and wrote the technical proposals for this program, about to enter its third stage of funding.

Expert has used real time radiographic imaging and film-based systems to provide quantitative image data that can be used to derive materials data that had not been previously available.

Expert has redesigned production systems so that they need less inspection and have greater probability of being manufactured correctly the first time. He has performed many studies on reliability (including a redesign evaluation of the Space Shuttle booster o-ring seal for a major aerospace company). Expert has taught the X-ray portion of the only course that the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) offers in nondestructive testing and quality engineering. He has been a visiting scientist in the Laboratory for Manufacturing and Productivity, a specialized section of the department of Mechanical Engineering at MIT.

Expert has designed systems incorporating X-ray tubes and sources at energies ranging from several hundred electron volts to millions of electron volts. These systems typically require detailed calculations between emitted spectrum, specific spectral absorption by the test specimen, and the detector response. Expert has served as project scientist on a number of such programs where he was directly responsible for theoretical work, computer simulation, and experimental confirmation of X-ray emission and absorption.

Expert is the inventor of several techniques and systems for image processing, primarily related to x-ray images (including medical) and are used for reducing overall noise in computed tomographic images. Most of these techniques (including special two-dimensional filtering algorithms) have come about through his work in computed tomography and in radiographic imaging. Applications range from printed circuit boards to security inspection of giant containerized cargo units. His most recent system design and implementations include large x-ray inspection systems for strategic arms treaty verification, techniques for freeze-framing computed tomography (CT) of spinning jet turbine engines for nondestructive testing, and a technique for very high spatial resolution three-dimensional CT imaging of 10 foot diameter rocket motors with a factor of 10 improvement over existing techniques.

In his studies of methods for increasing efficiencies of catalytic processes, Expert (working with two others) derived a method for modeling the catalytic process in a simple catalytic reaction as a mechanical interaction model. This model led the team to expostulate a method for increasing efficiency in catalytic processes by inducing mechanical stresses and resulted in a patent.

In conjunction with his nondestructive testing work, Expert has designed and supervised construction of a number of nondestructive testing standards.

Expert's work in 3-D reconstruction of the interior of test specimens has resulted in a number of algorithms for processing the tremendous amounts of data associated with that task. The large data volume necessitates an efficient choice of computation algorithms and a method of display of the processed data which represents a 3-D set of material properties of the test specimen. He has used geometric warping, mathematical transformations, and coordinate collapse (among other techniques) to display and highlight segments of image data most important.

As a project scientist in a number of different experiments, Expert has been responsible for planning, carrying out, and analyzing data from dozens of experiments. These experiments range from the first direct imaging of XUV and X-ray radiation on charge coupled detectors to designing solar observation sequences for a dual telescope mounted on a NASA satellite.

Expert suggested a backscatter X-ray imaging configuration that resulted in what has become a standard technique employed in baggage inspection systems at airports. The backscatter technique works by scattering a higher proportion of X-rays that interact with explosives than X-rays that are scattered by other more typical baggage items.


Year Degree Subject Institution
Year: 1976 Degree: PhD Subject: Physics Institution: University of Wisconsin, Madison
Year: 1970 Degree: BS Subject: Physics Institution: M.I.T.

Work History

Years Employer Title Department
Years: 1986 to Present Employer: Undisclosed Title: President Department:
Available upon request.
Years Employer Title Department
Years: 1976 to 1986 Employer: American Science and Engineering Title: Director of Applied Physics Department:
Available upon request.

Additional Experience

Vendor Selection
Expert has experience locating vendors of x-ray imaging, computed tomography (CT), nondestructive testing, data analysis and quality engineering. He has access to large and small companies for strategic alliances, print materials, personal contacts, as well as online references and libraries.
Other Relevant Experience
Expert has been heavily involved in the transition of technology from the laboratory into the workplace. Projects include the application of new image processing algorithms into standard data analysis packages for production inspection of high end-value products, inexpensive X-ray imaging technology for a factory floor operation, design-for-use programs involving high technology in traditionally low technology industries. The range of projects extends from glass bottles to advanced jet fighters. Expert has also performed cost/benefit analyses in support of manufacturing technology.

Expert has been a principal in managing the development of new technology; this includes all phases from initial idea to proof-of-principle to funding to design/build/test prototypes and selling a finished product. Expert is experienced in marketing, in proposal preparation, and in detailed specification writing. He has been involved in aiding new companies particularly in high technology start-ups.

A primary part of Expert's work revolves around providing technology solutions for problems in industrial production and re-organization of labor within companies to solve those problems. He frequently provides marketing consultation for developing markets and for attracting R&D funding for those programs. His technical work lies mostly in providing solutions to difficult inspection and materials problems for high-cost or critical end-items, especially those in the aerospace industry. Expert also consults for manufacturers of x-ray systems. Additionally, he has broad project scientist/engineer and program management experience for high technology programs, including development of space flight-qualified instrumentation and high reliability.

Expert has conducted studies related to radiation protection for workers in high energy X-ray inspection facilities. These calculations include the effects of not only the direct radiation, but X-ray "sunshine," neutrons, and induced effects in equipment and in the facility component both during the operation of an X-ray generating system and after the system has been turned off.

Expert was the project scientist on a number of astronomy experiments sponsored by NASA. These experiments included rocket-borne and satellite-based instrumentation that included visual-band telescopes and grazing incidence X-ray and XUV telescopes, which are used to image soft X-ray and XUV radiation emanating from stars, galaxies, and the interstellar medium.

Fields of Expertise

flaw detection, X-ray imaging, X-ray nondestructive testing, computed tomography, tomography, X-ray imaging space technology, gamma radiation, gamma radiation detection, gamma ray, high-energy radiation, high-energy radiation detection, X-ray detection, X-ray detector, business management, business re-engineering, radiographic film, radiography, quality engineering, X-ray absorption, X-ray emission, image processing, image analysis, physics modeling, mechanical behavior modeling, nondestructive testing standard, computer vision, computer simulation, number crunching, design of experiments, explosives detection, real-time measurement, computational method, image filtration, definite Riemann integral, medical diagnostic imaging, product manufacturing, X-ray image intensifier, radiation shield, imaging-related manufacturing technology, space-based X-ray telescope, X-ray physics, reliability, cost analysis, temperature sensor, materials science modeling, design for manufacturability, eddy-current testing, technology management, optical system design, stress measurement, radiation energy, explosives detection instrument, radio communication electrical equipment, imaging system, underwater nondestructive testing, technical writing, systems engineering, strain gage, statistics, statistical data analysis, spectroradiometry, sensor, radioactivity, nuclear radiation shielding, pressure transducer, piezoelectric transducer, optical material, optical coupling, nuclear physics experimental method, nondestructive testing code, non-linear optics, metrology, low-temperature testing, isotope, integral calculus, infrared imaging, information theory, humidity sensor, geometrical optics, failure modes and effects analysis, engineering statistics, elementary particle detection, computer algebra, cluster analysis, camera, calculus, astrophysics, artificial intelligence

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