Expert Details

Chemical Engineering

ID: 107627 Utah, USA

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Expert has taught a course in air pollution control at BYU about a dozen times in the past 22 years, a course which he organized. He has general experience in the design of air pollution control systems and has specific experience in the design of catalytic converters for control of CO, hydrocarbon, and NOx pollution. He has consulted with a number of companies on design of automotive catalysts, automotive catalyst technology, and SCR catalysis.

Thirty years of expert's career has involved conducting nitrogen BET, H2 chemisorption, and TPD experiments on catalysts, coals, and coal chars. He has worked extensively in the development of standard methods for determining metal surface areas of supported metals by hydrogen adsorption. Regarded as one of the leading authorities on the characterization of catalysts by chemisorption, expert has published two critical reviews dealing with H2 chemisorption methods for base and noble metals. The BYU Catalysis Laboratory has conducted chemisorption studies for several companies to develop methods for optimizing catalyst activity and quality control.

After graduating from Stanford, expert worked for a year at Corning Inc. in automotive emissions control catalysis. There, he developed monolithic catalysts for CO oxidation and NO reduction. In the subsequent 27 years he has consulted with Corning and other companies on problems relating to automotive catalysts and catalytic converter technology. Expert is particularly experienced in the characterization and deactivation of automotive catalysts. As an invited speaker at the CRC Auto/Oil Symposium in Dearborn, he spoke on sulfur poisoning of supported metal catalysts. He has consulted with a number of companies on design of automotive catalysts and on automotive catalyst technology, Additionally, he has researched and consulted on NOx reduction catalysts for three-way catalysts and lean burn catalysts.

He has 30 years of experience characterizing supported base and noble metal, metal oxide, and metal sulfide catalysts using adsorption, spectroscopic, and activity-testing methods. He is particularly experienced with the use of Mössbauer spectroscopy, temperature-programmed desorption/reaction methods, and laboratory activity-testing methods. For over 25 years, expert has worked in the area of catalyst deactivation, regeneration, and poisoning. A number of his research projects have focused on sulfur poisoning of catalysts. He has authored or co-authored three books, more than six chapters, and several dozen articles on catalyst deactivation, carbon deposition, sintering, and poisoning. His reviews on sulfur poisoning of metals are among the most authoritative. Currently, he is preparing a book on sintering of supported metal catalysts that will be the authority on that subject. He has consulted with a number of companies on catalyst deactivation and poisoning problems.

He has directed research on the development of SCR catalysts for the past 10 years. He and his students have investigated Cu-ZSM-5 for SCR of NO with propane and Pt/Al2O3, Cu-ZSM-5, H-ZSM-5, H-Mordenite, and commercial zeolite catalysts for SCR of NO with ammonia. The most recent work in his lab focused on the kinetics and mechanism of SCR of NO with ammonia on H-ZSM-5 and H-Mordenite. The mechanistic information in this study has led to the development of a new process concept for relatively low-temperature SCR of NO with ammonia over H-Mordenite. He has consulted with several companies on the development of SCR catalysts.

He has conducted research over the past 20 years on cobalt and iron catalysts used in 2nd and 3rd generation Fischer-Tropsch processes. His research has emphasized activity/structure relationships; catalyst characterization by adsorption methods and Mossbauer spectroscopy; every aspect of catalyst deactivation; and kinetic/mechanistic studies. He is a recognized authority on cobalt catalysts for Fischer-Tropsch synthesis. Over the past 10 years he has consulted with several companies (large and small) on activity testing, catalysts characterization, and deactivation problems in FTS. He is very knowledgeable regarding gas-to-liquids (GTL) technology.

He directed several research projects dealing with the characterization of Mo catalysts for CO hydrogenation and hydrotreating. He also spent a summer working at Unocal on hydrotreating catalysts. More recently he reviewed deactivation of hydrotreating catalysts in a chapter in a book edited by Oballa an Shih. His new book Fundamentals of Industrial Catalytic Processes contains a chapter on petroleum refining that was in large part written by him, including a large section on hydrotreating. The book also treats the modeling of deactivation of hydrotreating catalysts. He has also lectured to professionals at several companies on the modeling of catalyst deactivation in hydrotreating. conducted research on many different catalytic process during the past 30 years and has considerable experience consulting with companies on industrial catalytic processes of many different types. He has co-authored a textbook/handbook on Fundamentals of Industrial Catalytic Processes which treats in detail the chemistry, kinetics, reactor, and process design of many important catalytic processes as well as future trends in catalytic processing. From these experiences, he has developed a broad knowledge of many industrial catalytic process and an in-depth knowledge of more than a dozen different processes including CO oxidation, Fischer-Tropsch synthesis, hydrogenation, hydrotreating, selective catalytic reduction, steam-refo

Expert has conducted research for the past 30 years on preparation, characterization, and activity-testing of supported cobalt, iron, nickel, palladium, and platinum catalysts. His work has emphasized understanding the chemistry of different preparation methods; characterization by adsorption methods, FTIR, and Mossbauer spectroscopy to find activity-structure relationships; and activity testing at the laboratory scale to determine intrinsic, specific activity. His work has also focused on understanding causes of catalysts deactivation, e.g. due to carbon deposition, coking, poisoning, and sintering. He has conducted and published a number of definitive studies on the effects of dispersion and support on the properties of metal crystallite clusters.

Ph.D. dissertation involved a sophisticated Mossbauer spectroscopy study of supported Pt-Fe alloys. At BYU he used Mossbauer spectroscopy to study the chemical and magnetic properties of iron catalysts (for Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis), coal chars, coals, and air pollution particulates. BYU has state-of-the-art equipment for studying iron solids in controlled atmospheres from 77 to 773 K.

He has 25 years of experience working with reactions that produce or convert syngas to useful fuels and catalysts for these reactions. He has worked on activity testing, catalysts characterization, and catalyst deactivation of the important cobalt, iron, and nickel catalysts used in these reactions. His group has also done definitive studies of the kinetics, and modeling of methanation, Fischer-Tropsch, and steam-reforming reactions. Him and his students have conducted significant research on zeolite catalysts used in SCR of NOx for stationary power sources.

He has taught courses in chemical engineering for 27 years. His teaching expertise include (1) catalysis and kinetics (2) chemical reaction engineering, (3)material and energy balances, (4) materials science and engineering, and (5) creativity. He has also taught short courses on (1) fundamentals of heterogeneous catalysis, (2) catalyst deactivation, (3) industrial catalytic processes, (4) Fischer-Tropsch synthesis, and (5) deactivation of hydrodesulferization catalysts.

Training/Seminars: Since 1989, Expert has presented three-day short courses on catalysis, catalyst deactivation, and Fischer-Tropsch to some 500 professionals. He has given three-day short courses on subjects relating to catalysis and catalyst technology to nearly 500 professionals at ten different companies, including Amoco, Catalytica Chevron, Corning, Exxon, Mobil, and Shell Development. He is also available to teach courses on Industrial Catalytic Processes and Creativity/Problem Solving. Consultant on automotive emissions control since 1973. Expert has consulted with several large companies in this area. He has a deep understanding of the catalyst technologies used in automotive converters and of the science underlying them. During the past 12 years, Expert has consulted with several large and small companies in the areas of Fischer-Tropsch synthesis and GTL technologies. He has conducted fundamental and applied research on Fischer-Tropsch synthesis for the past 25 years and has published over 50 journal articles in this area. Expert is an internationally recognized expert on catalyst deactivation. He has consulted with more than a dozen companies on problems related to catalyst deactivation. He has conducted research in this area for 25 years and has published three books, about ten reviews/chapters, and more than 25 papers on this topic. Expert has been a Teltech expert for nearly ten years. He has worked assisted approximately 35 different Teltech clients by telephone, conducted extended consulting with about six of these clients, participated in a one-day Teltech forum for a large client, and conducted a multi-faceted, two-month comprehensive study of automotive catalyst technology for another large client.


Year Degree Subject Institution
Year: 1972 Degree: PhD Subject: Chemical Engineering Institution: Stanford University
Year: 1970 Degree: MS Subject: Chemical Engineering Institution: Stanford University
Year: 1968 Degree: BES Subject: Chemical Engineering Institution: Brigham Young University

Work History

Years Employer Title Department
Years: 1981 to Present Employer: Undisclosed Title: Consultant Department: .
Consulted with over 70 companies on: (1) issues relating to catalyst preparation, characteriza-tion, design, and deactivation; (2) preliminary design and trouble-shooting of catalytic reactors and processes (especially for FTS); (3) comprehensive studies of patent literature, and (4) technical expert in litigation relating to catalyst failure, catalyst deactivation and regeneration, patent infringement, plant failure, and air pollution control.
Years Employer Title Department
Years: 2008 to Present Employer: Undisclosed Title: Employee of and consultant Department: Fischer-Tropsch Consortium
helped company develop stable supports and active, stable Co and Fe FT catalysts
Years Employer Title Department
Years: 1973 to 2008 Employer: BYU Title: Professor of Chemical Engineering Department: Catalysis Lab
• Organized and taught courses on catalysis, air pollution control, energy, materials, catalyst deactivation, industrial catalytic processes and creativity.
• Head of BYU Catalysis Lab 35 years; awarded > 70 research contracts and grants from NSF, DOE, and a dozen companies; supervised research of 6 post docs and > 200 students. Pub-lished or co-published 150 journal papers, 20 reviews, and 5 patents relating to catalyst prep-aration, characterization, design, and deactivation; much of this work has focused on SCR, Ni methanation and Co & Fe Fischer-Tropsch (FT) catalysts. Established with Prof. Bill Hecker the BYU Fischer-Tropsch Consortium which is presently operating in its 6th year.
• Associate director of the Advanced Combustion Engineering Research Center for 8 years; helped direct 25 research projects at BYU and U of U with an overall budget of $20 million.
• Sabbaticals at Sandia National Lab and U. Calif. Berkeley & Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory by invitation from Dr. Wayne Goodman and Prof. Gabor Somorjai, respectively.
• Principal author with Dr. Robert J. Farrauto of a 975 page handbook/textbook, Fundamentals of Industrial Catalytic Processes, 1st Edition 1999, 2nd ed. 2006, John-Wiley Interscience.
Years Employer Title Department
Years: 1981 to 1982 Employer: General Electric, Co Title: Manager Department:
Managed a small team of chemical engineering faculty on the development of a reactor model for methanation of syngas on Ni on behalf of General Electric, Co.
Years Employer Title Department
Years: 1980 to 1980 Employer: Union Oil Research Center in Brea, CA Title: Visiting Consultant Department:
Visiting Consultant
Years Employer Title Department
Years: 1972 to 1973 Employer: Corning Glass Works Title: Senior Chemical Engineer in Automotive Emissions Control Department:
Conducted research on monolithic NOx reduction catalysts
Years Employer Title Department
Years: 1968 to 1972 Employer: Stanford University Title: Graduate Student in Chem. Eng., Department:
Surface Composition and Chemistry of Carbon-Supported PtFe Alloys

International Experience

Years Country / Region Summary
Years: 1962 to 1965 Country / Region: Bavaria, Germany Summary: He was a missionary for the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day-Saints, developed leadership qualities and fluency in German.

Career Accomplishments

Associations / Societies
He is a member of the ACS, the AIChE, the Western States Catalysis Club, and the North American Catalysis Society.

Expert is a member of the North American Catalysis Society (former board member), American Chemical Society (past-president of the Central Utah Section), the American Institute of Chemical Engineers (Session chair for several catalyst deactivation symposia), the California Catalysis Society (past-president), The Rocky Mountain Fuel Society, Tau Beta Pi (faculty adviser), Sigma Xi, and the Western States Catalysis Club.
Professional Appointments
Heterogeneous catalysis, catalyst design, catalytic materials, structure-activity relationships, kinetics, adsorption phenomena, catalyst deactivation, surface science, syngas conversion technologies, creativity; focus on Fischer-Tropsch catalyst preparation, design, and characterization; reaction chemistry, mechanisms, microkinetic modeling and kinetics; catalyst deactivation mechanisms and modeling; FT reactor and GTL & BTL process design.
Awards / Recognition
He received the Utah ACS Award and three University Awards for research.

1. Several significant University, College, and Department awards at BYU teaching and research excellence, including (a) the 19XX Outstanding Faculty member in the Engineering College; (b). Sponsored Research Achievement Award from BYU in 19XX; (c) Outstanding Alumnus Award of the Department of Chemical Engineering in 20XX; and (d) the Annual Sigma Xi Award of the BYU Chapter.
2. Appointed Pope Expert of Chemical Engineering from 19XX through 20XX.
3. Utah American Chemical Society Annual Award for research and professional excellence; candidates include all chemists and chemical engineers belonging to ACS.
4. A 3-day symposium was held in Prof. B’s honor at the National Surface and Colloids Meeting of the ACS in Potsdam, NY, 20XX. At the symposium, Expert received a lifetime achievement award from friends and colleagues “in recognition of his contributions to the science and technology of catalysis.”
5. A special issue of Catalyst Today in honor of Expert's contributions to catalytic science and technology will be published in 20XX.
Publications and Patents Summary
He has 110 journal publications, 12 chapters in books, four books, including a recent text/handbook on Industrial Catalytic Processes.

Experience in Evaluation of Patents
Expert has conducted 8-10 patent studies for clients involving searching, reviewing, and summarizing hundreds of patents and making recommendations based on the patent literature and (2) following are examples:
1. prepared and submitted a patent application for a Ru-based NO reduction automotive catalyst while working at Corning Glass.
2. evaluated a patent application for a large oil company that had been rejected due to perceived conflicts with early patents of a competitor. The application focused on Fischer-Tropsch reactor technology the company had developed which would be used in multi-billion dollar gas-to-liquid plants. He was asked to examine the patent application and competing patent already granted and provide written testimony in favor of the application.
3. conducted a comprehensive study of patent literature and the catalyst manufacturing market for automotive catalysts. He worked with a team of students over several months to (a) find and read hundreds of patents describing automotive catalyst technologies; (b) interview experts at different catalyst companies, and (c) write a comprehensive report (about 200 pages) reviewing automotive catalyst technology and the catalyst market.
4. evaluated the value of intellectual property of a patent to determine its market value. This project required (a) a study of the relevant patent literature and the market for this specific chemical; (b) an estimate of manufacturing costs and potential profits; and (c) compilation of a well-documented report.
5. conducted a comprehensive evaluation of scientific and patent literature addressing syngas to olefin catalysts for a large chemical company and provided recommendations for an R&D program.
6. conducted a 3-month comprehensive study of scientific and patent literature for the purpose of designing three methods documented in expired patents for preparing commercial Co Fischer-Tropsch catalysts. This involved reading several hundred patents and papers, devising three novel preparation methods free of patent coverage, and documenting the details of these preparation methods in a large (100 page) report.
7. conceived of new ideas leading to novel methods of preparing new supports and catalysts and submission of three patent applications assigned to Cosmas, Inc. All applications were accepted.

Additional Experience

Expert Witness Experience
Expert has worked with legal firms on three different cases. He is experienced in giving depositions, working with lawyers and dealing with legal documents.

Expert is recognized worldwide for his knowledge and expertise in catalyst preparation, design, catalyst deactivation & regeneration, and process design/performance. He has substantial experience as a technical expert on litigation relating to catalyst failure, catalyst performance, plant performance and safety, causes of catalyst deactiva-tion, and catalyst regeneration processes. Several examples of his legal activities, experience, and expertise are summarized below (without dates and company names):
1. Expert witness for defendant in the failure of a catalytic converter for a diesel engine in a sewage treatment plant: reviewed discovered materials and patents; determined causes of failure; provided expert advice to the defense counsel, and gave a 6 hour deposition to the plaintiff’s lawyers. Litigation was settled out of court in favor of the client.
2. Expert witness for the defendant on litigation involving the failure of a catalytic converter for a wood stove: reviewed patents, & legal materials; provided expert advice to the defense counsel, wrote a technical report in support of the defendant, and delivered a deposition. The case was settled out of court in favor of the client.
3. Expert witness for the plaintiff, an engineer permanently injured by exposure to flue gas in a power plant; assist-ed counsel for plaintiff in searching literature on health effects of power plant pollutants and providing written testimony on effects of acute exposure to SO2 and NO. Litigation was settled by arbitration in favor of client.
4. Expert was sued by a California company because of an accident causing permanent shut-down of an NF3 plant in Nevada for which BCS and the BCS design team had provided preliminary design services. BCS had provided a comprehensive report with detailed recommendations regarding safety and location (“not to be built in a populated area”) which were not followed by the plaintiff in the operation of their plant. As a result the plant was permanently closed after city officials ruled it to be a serious hazard to the citizens of the town. Expert worked closely with local and Calif. counsel to successfully quash this complaint.
5. Called as an expert witness to give deposition for plaintiff and defendant in a suit brought against the State of Nevada by the same California company described in No. 4. No information was provided to the consultant regarding the outcome of this case.
6. Technical expert for the plaintiff, a company (A) engaged in regeneration of catalysts for reduction of nitrogen oxides in power plants, who sued a new competing company (B) established by former employees in the same county for practicing trade secrets stolen from the parent company. Expert assisted the counsel for the plaintiff by reviewing relevant patents & operating procedures used by both companies and court documents for the defense, and provided written testimony of his conclusions and recommendations.
7. Technical expert for the defendant, a relatively small company engaged in biodiesel manufacturing that was sued for patent infringement by a large biodiesel manufacturer. Expert assisted the counsel for the defendant by reviewing the relevant patents for both companies and providing a technical assessment regarding the pros and cons of the suit and patents.
Training / Seminars
Since 1989, Expert has presented three-day short courses on catalysis, catalyst deactivation, and Fischer-Tropsch to some 500 professionals. He has given three-day short courses on subjects relating to catalysis and catalyst technology to nearly 500 professionals at ten different companies, including Amoco, Catalytica Chevron, Corning, Exxon, Mobil, and Shell Development. He is also available to teach courses on Industrial Catalytic Processes and Creativity/Problem Solving.
Vendor Selection
Some experience in connection with research and consulting.
Other Relevant Experience
Expert has conducted research in the areas of catalysis, auto emissions control, and combustion for the past 30 years.

Language Skills

Language Proficiency
English Mother tongue.Experienced and highly fluent.Enjoys writing, teaching, speaking, and reading.
German Expert spent two and a half years in Germany as a missionary. He has 16 college credits of German language and has translated many technical papers. He enjoys visiting Germany and speaking German. Given a week or two in Germany, he could be fluent again.

Fields of Expertise

mobile air-pollution-source catalytic converter, pollution catalysis, automotive emission control, automotive exhaust system, chemisorption, hydrogenation catalyst, transition metal catalysis, automotive catalysis, automotive catalytic converter, automotive emissions catalyst, catalyst mechanism, catalytic converter, automotive emissions-control technology, automotive gasoline-engine emission-control specification, catalysis, catalyst, heterogeneous catalysis, heterogeneous transition metal catalysis, multicomponent catalyst, palladium catalysis, palladium catalyst, carbon supported catalyst, catalysis reagent, catalyst structure, catalyst structure optimization, catalyst support, gas surface chemistry, metal surface chemistry, Mossbauer spectrum, supported metal catalyst, transition metal catalyst, catalyst poisoning, catalyst reactivity, catalyst regeneration, catalytic deactivation, catalyst poison, flue gas deNOx, gas-phase catalysis, selective catalytic reduction, selective catalytic reduction catalyst, Fischer-Tropsch reaction, synfuel, synthetic crude, coal-and-syngas catalysis, hydrodesulfurization, industrial catalysis, petrochemical catalysis, supported catalyst, porous catalyst physical-chemical characterization, Mossbauer spectroscopy, synthesis gas, zeolite, zeolite catalyst, chemical engineering, automobile fuel economy, chemical process design, chemical industry, bimetallic hydrogenation catalyst, automotive emission product, chemical engineering thermodynamics, heated catalyst, acid catalyst, off-site catalyst regeneration, chemical reaction engineering, petroleum refining catalysis, emission control, converter, emission control device, air pollution control system, aluminum oxide catalyst, carbon coke, fuel, air-quality assessment, stationary source air pollution control, exhaust-gas carbon monoxide analyzer, automotive diesel engine emission control specification, air pollution control, combustion, chemical reaction, pollution, adsorption, acid catalysis, emission process, coal, automotive exhaust, chemical fuel, surface chemistry, shape-selective catalysis, renewable energy source, kinetics, petroleum hydrodesulfurization, hydrogen, fossil fuel, flue gas treatment, colloid and interface chemistry, catalytic hydrogenation, carbon monoxide

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